Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a type of surgery that improves blood flow to the heart. Surgeons use CABG to treat people who have severe coronary heart disease (CHD). Symptoms of coronary artery disease include chest pain, fatigue, palpitations, abnormal heart rhythms and shortness of breath. In the CHD the blood flow to the heart is obstructed due to blockage of the arteries. These blockages are usually due to plaques which built up in the interior of the artery wall due to several reasons. As these arteries are responsible for blood supply to the heart, its blockage leads to deficiency in the blood supply to the heart leading to deficit in the oxygen supply. Coronary arteries carry oxygen-rich blood top the heart. The plaque hardens over the [period of time or can also rupture. The hardening of the plaque causes narrow passage for the blood to flow which leads to angina the symptoms of which include chest pain, breathlessness, fatigue etc. all due to deficiency in the oxygen rich blood supply to the heart.
The rupturing of the coronary artery is called as heart attack in which the blood clot is formed due to the rupture and this clot can then completely lead to blockage of the blood through the coronary arteries. Heart attacks can be fatal.
During CABG, a healthy artery or vein from the body is connected, or grafted, to the blocked coronary artery. The grafted artery or vein bypasses creates a new path for oxygen-rich blood to flow to the heart muscle. The results of CABG usually are excellent. The surgery improves or completely relieves angina symptoms in most patients. CABG lowers risk of having a heart attack and aids longevity. Chances of developing coronary heart increase with age. Smoking, obesity, alcohol consumption, and comorbid conditions such as diabetes, hypertension can precipitate a heart attack. Surgeons can bypass multiple coronary arteries during one surgery.
CABG improve your quality of life and reduces other CHD symptoms. It allows you to resume a more active lifestyle. It is a surgical intervention where surgery is the only option and anti-angina medications offer only limited benefit. Major arteries blockage, blockage above 70% narrowing the passage for the blood flow, CABG is the only option.
CABG is a sophisticated and intricate surgery and needs to be conducted in a specialised institute and operating theatre equipped to handle such cases. The trained cardio-vascular thoracic surgeons carry out such surgeries with their skilled team. Concomitant diseases can complicate the surgery and also the post-surgery recovery period. For diabetic and hypertensive patients the blood sugar levels and blood pressure must be well controlled before undertaking the procedure. Post-surgery, the advice from the cardiologists, nutritionist and physiotherapist and other specialists must be adhered to. Regular exercise, weight control, positive attitude and regular medications help in complete recovery post-surgery. Dietary control is an important tool to prevent recurring of the arterial blockages. Fatty and salty food, high blood lipid levels have propensity to block the blood vessels. Thus, patients need to refrain from unhealthy life-style. The unaffected branches of the artery can also get blocked over the period of time and may call for surgery.
What can I do to prevent my arteries narrowing?
To help prevent your arteries narrowing you can take medicines and make lifestyle changes. That way you may not need surgery to treat coronary heart disease.
What is an arterial block?
Blockages in arteries are buildup of cholesterol, scar, and muscle tissue with calcium within the wall of the artery that can block the flow of blood to the vital organ, such as the heart.
Can I have bath after CABG?
Sponge baths are given immediately. It will be a few days however before you are allowed to take shower and shampoo.
Will my cardiologist show me the diagram of the blockages?
Yes; after the angiography, the cardiologist will show you the picture and pin-point the blockages. This helps and patients and the caretakers understand the medical situation.
Will the anesthesia used during the procedure affect my cognition?
No; the anesthetic drugs have short-span of action and are used in the concentration based on the duration of the surgery and immediate post0surgery recovery period. It does not affect the metal faculties of the brain.
Angioplasty is a specialised procedure performed in a Cath lab (cardiac catheterisation laboratory). Since the patients are awake and alert through the procedure, they are given medication before and during angioplasty procedure to help relax
Coronary angiography is an imaging technique or a radiological test that helps visualize the insides of the coronary arteries. It shows the exact location and severity of any plaque formation and consequent narrowing of the coronary arteries. This helps the doctor to decide on what treatment is needed.
Our heart is located in our chest cavity and is a pump made of special muscles known as myocardium. Our heart is divided into four chambers; two upper chambers known as auricles (atria) and two lower chambers are known as ventricles. They are interconnected by a passage and the opening and closing is controlled by valves.
Arteries, veins and lymphatic vessels form the vascular system of our body and vascular surgery is a specialty dealing with diseases affecting the vascular system The diseases affecting our vascular system involve the obstruction in the blood flow due to blockages (aneurysms) in the vessels.
Heart valve surgery is used to repair or replace diseased heart valves. Blood flows between different chambers of the heart must flow through a heart valve. Human heart has four valves namely Tricuspid, Pulmonary, Mitral and Aortic Valves. If a valve is not working correctly, blood flow is impaired either by leakage or by back flow.
The rhythmicity of the heart beat is based on the electric impulses. These impulses are initiated by the contraction of the cardiac muscles also known as myocardium.
Electrophysiology is a branch of cardiology that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of heart rhythm disorders. Electrophysiologists are the cardiologists with special training in heart rhythms disorders and its management.
Heart Surgery may be required to fix the problem with the functioning of the heart. Closed heart surgery does not require patients to be supported by a heart-lung bypass machine and the heart chambers are opened during the procedure. Some repairs are best performed using closed heart surgery.
Heart surgery in children are indicated to repair heart defects a child is born with CHD (congenital heart defects) and heart diseases a child gets after birth. The surgery is needed for the child's wellbeing. There are many kinds of heart defects ranging from minor to serious.
Pacemaker implantation is a surgical procedure where a small electrical device called a pacemaker is implanted on the chest or abdomen. The pacemaker sends regular electrical pulses that help keep your heart beating regularly.
Heart valve surgery fixes a damaged or faulty heart valve. There are two main types of heart valve surgeries: valve repair and valve replacement. Double valve surgery is a surgery where two valves are involved. Sometimes a faulty valve can be repaired by cutting away excess tissue in the cusps of the valve and sewing the edges together.
A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is an opening or hole in the wall that separates the two lower chambers of the heart. This wall is the ventricular septum. The hole causes oxygen-rich blood to leak from the left side of the heart to the right side.
The upper chambers of the heart are divided a wall called “interatrial septum”. The defect in this wall is known as Atrial septal defect (ASD). It is a form of a congenital heart defect, the defect the baby is born with.